In April 2017, the steppes mycobiota of the “Rostov” strict nature reserve and its environs were studied. There are 75 species have been identified, of which 85 % belong to class Basidiomycota, and 15 % to Ascomycota. One species (Cheilymenia dennisii) firstly mentioned for Russia, eight species are first indicated for Rostov province, and 20 are new for the nature reserve. Among Basidiomycota, the largest groups are “aphyllophoroid” (29 species), “agaricoid” (17) and “gasteroid” (14). A number of species have been identified (Polyporus rhizophilus, Gastrosporium simplex, Geastrum campestre, etc.) included in several Red Data Books of the steppe regions of Russia. A large number of rare and indicative species of fungi found in the “Rostov” state nature reserve characterizes this territory as an important site for the conservation of the steppe mycobiota of Eurasia.Key words: arid climate, distribution, diversity conservation, grassland ecosystems, Red Data Book, rare species, Rostov state nature reserve.