The complex research of typical section of genus Primula in flora of Russia is made. The herbarium collections are inspected critically, supervision over plants under natural conditions and in the conditions of an introduction are carry out. The seed surface sculpture characters are studied with help of scanning electronic microscope. Results of definition of nucleotide sequences of ITS-region of nuclear rDNA are involved. Conspectus of the section Primula for flora of Russia, including 4 subsections, 14 species and 1 subspecies is made. The phototypes for P. veris и P. juliae are published, P. elatior, P. heterochroma and P. ruprechtii are lectotyped. The new combination of subsectional rank is offered: subsection Julianae (Fed. et A. Los.) Kovt.Key words: Primulaceae, Primula, synopsis, typical samples, Russia, Caucasia, flora, seed surface sculpture, SEM.