The results of study of bryophytes in the moderately dry oak-woods (all. Lathyro-Quercion roboris), pine forests (all. Caragano fruticis-Pinion sylvestris) and larch-birch forests (all. Veronico teucrii-Pinion sylvestris) of the South Urals are discussed. Eighty moss species and 8 liverworts have been revealed. Forty nine percent of bryophyte species have low constancy. The lowest diversity of bryophytes is characteristic of larch-birch forests (23 species) and oak-woods (32 species), the highest — of pine forests (83 species). Species that grow on the bases of tree trunks and on the rotten wood (Pylaisia polyantha, Pseudoleskeella nervosa, Stereodon pallescens, Sciuro-hypnum reflexum, Brachytheciastrum velutinum, Plagiomnium cuspidatum, Platygyrium repens) have high constancy. In the forest communities which are developed on the slopes, epilythic bryophytes of carbonate rocks (Tortella tortuosa, Schistidium apocarpum s.l., Pseudoleskeella tectorum) and ground light-loving species (Abietinella abietina, Ceratodon purpureus, Rhytidium rugosum, Syntrichia ruralis) are abundant. In comparison with moderately dry forests of the Russian Plain, communities from the South Urals are distinguished by almost complete absence of ruderal moss species. This indicates low disturbance and natural character of the Urals communities and emphasizes their high conservation value.Key words: bryophytes, forest-steppe, oak-woods, pine-woods.