Accurate reconstruction of past vegetation based on pollen data needs understanding of the relationships between pollen and vegetation. For this aim we placed traps and collected surface samples in typical communities in Hulun Buir steppe. A (association index), O (over-representation index), and U (under-representation index), which measure pollen representation to vegetation, were calculated when combining pollen data with vegetation data. The results suggest that the pollen produced by dominant plants, such as Artemisia, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae and Ranunculaceae, Chenopodium is well represented and indicates the plant species growing around. It seems there is no significant correlation between the pollen productivity and pollen dispersal. Although pollen assemblages can reflect plant communities in Hulun Buir steppe, the coefficient of similarity was only 0.6, which revealed a high effect of background pollen components on the accuracy of pollen representation to vegetation in this study area.Key words: pollen, vegetation, trap, surface sample, Hulun Buir steppe, Inner Mongolia.